For everyone to see

Baluty district of Ldz, 1943. Ghetto Border. The sign reads: "Jewish Quarter. Entry forbidden."

Bridge over Zgierska Street - passage from one section of the Ldz ghetto to the other. 1943.

288 Ldz Ghetto, 1943. The largest ghetto in the territories annexed to the Reich. Two hundred thousand Jews were interned here, not only from Ldz and its environs, but also from Austria, the Czech Republic and Germany. As of April 1, 1940, the ghetto was completely cut off from the rest of the city. The Ldz Ghetto - controlled by a government bureau, the "Gettoverwaltung" for a variety of reasons lasted longer than any other ghetto. It was liquidated in August 1944. With the final transport - on August 28,1944 - Chaim Mordechaj Rumkowski, Chairman of the Council of Jewish Elders (Judenrat), was deported to Auschwitz. More Jews survived the Ldz Ghetto than any other ghetto created by the Germans.

Krosno on the Wislok. The Jews were ordered to pull at each other's beards for the camera.

"The picture was taken by some Kraut, who handed it right back to us to be developed. Then we made ourselves copies on the sly. I had no idea that they would still be of any use to anyone. "In Krosno the Jews were rounded up in the market square, and then the transports left for the death camp at Belzec. The Jews were jammed into the back of open trucks and driven around the whole city for everyone to see. That was the last time they were seen."

Stanislaw Leszczynski, Walbrzych

290 Transport to Chelmno on the Ner. The train did not go all the way to the death camp in Chelmno. For this reason, in nearby Powiercie the Jews were reloaded onto trucks or narrow-gauge railway. At Chelmno the gas chambers were already in operation by December of 1941, and consisted of three sealed trucks in which people were killed by the exhaust fumes, on the way to the nearby forest. By January 18, 1945, about 300,000 people had been murdered this way.

The liquidation of the Belchatw ghetto, August 1942. Almost all the Jews from Belchatw died in Chelmno on the Ner, only a few were deported to the Ldz ghetto.
"This photograph was taken by Maria Grniesiewicz from the balcony of her second- floor apartment, located on the market square in Myslenice. At the time she was in a state of great agitation, out of fear of being discovered; hence the quality of the photo is not the best."
Kazimierz Harcula, Gliwice

292 "Jews of Myslenice already seated in peasants' wagons and prepared for departure - ostensibly for resettlement. It is the morning of August 22, 1942."

293 "Landrat Hamann, accompanied by the chief of the Arbeitsamt Konrad Ziegler and other German officials, checks the names of the Jews who are leaving. The civilian clothing of the Germans was meant to emphasize the non-military nature of the evaluation, in order to prevent a state of panic. "At the moment the photograph was taken, the Heutlinger family are leaving the market square."

294 "Wagons carrying Jews of Myglenice as they leave the market square at Sobieski Street in the direction of Krakow."
On December 5 and 6, 1939, in Krakw's Kazimierz quarters, and then in the district of Podgrze, the Germans carried out operations of looting from the Jews. From the houses surrounded by a police cordon they took jewelry, expensive furniture, and everyday things. Maksymilian Redlich, the community officer, was told by the SS to set fire to the synagogue. When he refused, they shot him. In the gas works they threw a Jewish boy into the fire, and forced an old Jew to cast red-hot coals over his body. Many people were shot in the streets.

"I carried a still camera all the time. A Leica with a claw and a fixed lens - this was my most precious possession. During the round-up of Jews in Podgrze, I managed to take a few snaps from a coffin which was displayed at a funeral home. It was at my friend Staszek Gawlik's funeral home in the market square. I took photos through a knot-hole. Another time I took snaps from a streetcar.

"When the war broke out, we lived with my mother and grandparents at 11 Limanowskiego Street. Then, in 1941, our street was included in the ghetto, and six families were moved into Grandpa's three-room flat. We moved over to the neighboring Jzefinska Street, to a building with only one room, so we could live there alone.

"There, on Jzefinska Street, my grandparents were killed in their own beds. They did not want to go to the transport and were shot by the Germans. At that time, I already lived in the Aryan district. My father-in-law, Jzef Lepka, hid me, though he knew I was a Jew. "Of course I had false papers, I had changed my surname Kraus to Seweryn, the name I still go by today. On November 20,1942, when I was doing business in the Arkady Cafe, two Gestapo men approached me and I found myself taken to Montelupich prison. That is how I got to Auschwitz, but as a Pole!

"After a few months, the SS were looking for someone who would serve them, shave and cut hair. I volunteered and passed the test. At the beginning of the war, I had had no job and my Grandpa urged me to learn barbering from him. I must have also been favored by Artur Breitwieser. He was a graduate of Jan Kazimierz University in Lvov. Before he joined the SS, he served with the 3rd Mountaineer Rifle Regiment in Biala, at the same time as I did.

"Then I began to repair fountain pens and typewriters for the Germans. They needed me to such an extent that they permitted me to move around the camp without escort and even issued me a wristwatch from the camp deposit so I could turn up at an appointed time. 'And just to think, that it was I who survived. A Jew who could wander around the entire camp.

"After the war, I was a witness at the trials of war criminals in Krakw, Hannover, Frankfurt, Wuppertal. When Breitwieser was tried, I said that for an SS-man he had acted decently. Perhaps because of me he escaped the death penalty."

As told by Jzef Seweryn of Warsaw



A round-up of Jews in the Podgrski Market, Cracow. Photograph by Jzef Seweryn.

A round-up of Jews in the Podgrski Market, Cracow. Photograph by Jzef Seweryn.

An Auschwitz ausweis permitting Jzef Seweryn to wear a wristwatch.

Camp photograph of Jzef Seweryn.

Krakow. The Kazimierz district, Krakowska Street. March 1941. Jews being taken to the ghetto in Podgrze district.

The market place in a small town in the General Gouvernement This photograph was taken by a German soldier named Grner.

Tarnow. Children under 10 did not wear the Star of David armbands.

Jews being taken from Pinczw to the Treblinka death camp. October 1942.

303 Overleaf: "Die Soldaten des Fhrers im Felde Verwanzte und verlauste Judenbetten werden auf dem Marktplatz in Myslenice verbrannt. Aufnahme: Prof. Heinrich Hoffman, Miinchen." (Soldiers of the Fhrer in the field. Jewish beds which were infested and lice-ridden are being burned on the market square in Myglenice. Author: Prof. Heinrich Hoffman, Munich.) "Photographs to be viewed through special glasses, giving a 3-D effect. My father-in-law, Stanislaw Lentecki, received a set of such photographs as a gift from a German when he was in Germany as a forced laborer." Adam Kucharczyk, Warsaw
I carried this photograph of my mama through two selections by Dr. Mengele at Auschwitz. Once, I held it in my mouth, the second time, I had it taped with a bandage to the bottom of my foot. I was 14 years old. My dear mama, daddy, little sister Gizia and brother Abrahamek were already dead. They hid in the Plaszw camp to avoid the deportation to Auschwitz. The commendant of the camp discovered them on March 24,1943 and shot them on the spot." Zahava Bromberg, Tel Aviv

Debora Goldstein-Rosen.

Otwock, August 1942. Before being transported to Treblinka, Jews waited for several days crowded onto the square, because there weren't enough railway cars to carry them all.

"Attention: Jewish Quarter. Opatw. Jews leaving the area without permission will be punished by death."

The work camp in Poniatowa.

The work camp on Bialska Street, in Janw Lubelski.

Burial of corpses from the Warsaw ghetto; cemetery on Okopowa Street.

Tarnobrzeg, late 1939-early 1940. "This is how the Gestapo and military police amused themselves in late 1939 and early 1940. In Tarnobrzeg they liquidated the Jewish elite by driving them into the Vistula and shooting at them. "The photograph comes from the collection of the 2nd Division of the Home Army, Tarnobrzeg district, to which I was attached." Marian Kosior, Tarnobrzeg

The Warsaw Ghetto in flames, April 1943. I believe this to be the only color photograph showing the Warsaw Ghetto in flames during the 1943 uprising. It was made as a transparency by my late father-in-law, Karol Grabski of Ldz, who was hiding in Warsaw at the time." Jacek Jurczakowski, Ldz

312 Overleaf: "This is what the Jewish quarter looked like after they had been taken to die. Tarlw, October 18,1942." A hidden camera photo by Kwasniewski, a local photographer.

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