There were seven children


The family of Herman Rothman, tailor. Brzozw, 1924. Caption taken from the album "The Jewish Families of Brzozw," which was prepared in the '60s. by Jzef Rogowski, a craftsman and diarist of Brzozw. Property of the Regional Museum of Brzozw.

"The owner of these photographs was Chaja Tendler from Skala, near Ojcw, born in 1918 (first from the left in the picture below). In 1938 she and her family moved to Krzeszowice, near Krakw, where they had a store which sold leather goods.

'After the War broke out, Chaj a went into hiding in the home of my parents and grandparents in Ojcw. She had with her a collection of family photos and an album from school. One night we were warned that people were going to be rounded up. Chaja and her relatives escaped to a secluded spot. I know that she survived the War, since my mother saw her on Olkusz Street in 1946, but my mother lost her in the crowd. She never succeeded in tracking her down." Henryk Kurek, Zabrze

From the family album of the Tendlers of Skala.

From the family album of the Tendlers of Skala.

From the family album of the Tendlers of Skala.

Maria Epsztejn left Vilnius to study medicine in France. In Paris she met Don Komaj, a Russian emigre. They married and had a daughter, Pola. In 1916 Maria went to the Ukraine where she managed a hospital in Bolszaja Babka, from where she supported her husband's studies at the Polytechnique in Paris. When he completed his studies, they lived in the Ukraine and then in Vilnius. Don constructed power stations and steam plants, and set up a power grid around Vilnius. Maria had a gynecological practice. Pola, like her mother, studied medicine. During the German occupation, before the Ghetto was created, Pola's husband convinced the entire family that they had to leave Vilnius. Soon thereafter the Gestapo arrested him and nothing was ever heard of him again. The family, however, left Vilnius. They hid themselves in the homes of Jews in small towns and villages, with peasants for whom Don had built mills before the War, with Poles, Ukrainians, and a Lithuanian woman. Don was killed by a Polish policeman. He was found in front of the forester's lodge where he had been hiding himself, without shoes and without the gold crowns on his teeth. Maria and Pola survived the War. In Bielsko, Pola, who was named Wawer after her second marriage, ran the Jewish Children's Home, and in 1950 she returned to ophthalmology. She lives in Warsaw.

The children of Anna and Leon Schnepf: Fryderyka, Henryk, Ernestyna, Zaneta. Drohobycz, 1905 or 1906. Fryderyka's daughter, Tola Zatopianska, lives in Wroclaw.

Names unknown. Photograph taken by Michal Dabrowski in Baranw Sandomierski.

The Komaj family. Seated are Don Komaj and his daughter Pola. Behind them stands Don's wife Maria, with friends of the family including, at right, Adela and her husband. Paris, 1915.
"In 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War, my grandfather Edmund Winawer was called up to the army as a doctor, hence the uniform. My father, Stefan, was born in 1902, graduated from the Polytechnic, and worked in the Klawe's pharmaceutical firm. A member of the Communist Party of Poland, in 1932 he left for Moscow with mother and me. He was employed at a pharmaceutical factory. In 1937 he was arrested, and no one knows how he died. My mother and I returned to Poland in 1958. "My uncle Karol, born in 1897, was a lawyer. During the War he was on the Aryan side, since he had falsified documents, and worked in the Chimera reading room on Nowogrodzka Street. He printed up false IDs. In 1943 he was arrested for conspiratorial activities. He and his wife Maria were executed by firing squad." As told by Irena Winawer of Warsaw

Dr. Edmund Winawer with his wife Dora (nee Horowitz) and their sons Karol and Stefan (on his mother's lap).

"This photograph from 1890 shows the entire family of my late father (at the far right). My grandfather, Israel Rosenberg, had a large restaurant and cafe in Biala, now known as BielskoBiala, on Ratuszowa Street. "My grandparents died before the War. Their oldest son, Emanuel (back row, center), lived in Austria and before Hitler occupied Austria he and his wife moved to Palestine. He died in Jerusalem in 1963 at an advanced age. My late father, Herman, was born in 1883. He studied economics in Vienna. He was a member of the Zionist academic association, Emunah. In 1914 he graduated from military academy with the rank of second lieutenant. During the First World War he fought in the Austrian Army in the 56th Infantry Regiment (Galician) on the Russian and Italian fronts. He was decorated with high medals for bravery. Then, as a captain, he took part in the war against the Bolsheviks in 1920. Later he was co-owner of a sawmill and a factory which made crates. He was an active Zionist, a member of the Ha-Shahar organization in Biala, and an excellent sportsman, particularly in fencing and riflery. He was arrested by the Russians in December of 1939 in Lww, and was put in a camp in Starobielsk. He is on the list of Polish officers who were murdered in Katyn. The rest of the family - four sisters and their husbands, and my father's youngest brother Wilhelm and his wife - died in the Holocaust." Kurt Rosenberg, Rome

"This photograph was probably taken in 1910. It is of my late mother's family. They lived in Wadowice, where my grandfather, Szymon Mnz, had a fabric store and a large apartment house in the center of the city, at No. 2 Third of May Street. My grandparents died before the war and are buried in Wadowice. My mother and her sister Elza survived the War and died in England. Her youngest sister (seated next to Grandmother) married Wilhelm Hchl, the supervisor of the passenger and baggage department of Lww station, and lived in Lww on Oklski Street. Shortly after the Germans occupied the city in 1941, after being denounced by the concierge, a Ukrainian, she and her husband were executed in front of their house." Kurt Rosenberg, Rome
, 091 "One photograph shows the family of the baker from Kolbuszowa whom my mother helped at home. My father used to take the flour from the mill to the bakery on his horse cart. The other is of our closest neighbors, owners of the sawmill. Unfortunately, I don't remember which is which. Both families became good friends of my parents, Zofia and Tomasz Mierzejewski. During the War our entire family was sent to forced labor in Germany. When they returned to Kolbuszowa, these families were no more. The photos survived the War in my mother's collection despite her homelessness and persecution during the War, and her being resettled in Western Poland after the War." Janina Chyb, Szulw

On the reverse side: "To Dear and Kind Mr. and Mrs. Dobrowolski as a remembrance from the Birnbaum daughters. November 1940." "At the beginning of the occupation these ladies lived in our village next door to my parents. In the photo are three sisters and the husband of the woman on the right. It's not known what happened to them." Krystyna Dobrowolska-Ziobro, Radwan

The Biber family. Brzozw. Caption taken from the album "The Jewish Families of Brzozw."

"These are the Minc sisters and their cousins or friends. In the foreground on the left, the youngest of the Minc sisters, Olga, my mother. Next to her, Dora, who lived and died in Moscow. Behind them, standing at the far left is Sara - she and her daughter survived the Vilnius Ghetto and German camps, and she died in Warsaw in 1975. Second from the right is the oldest sister, Guta. In 1924 she left for Russia, and died in Moscow in 1985. The picture was taken sometime between 1913 and 1915, when they still lived in Warsaw. Their parents moved here from Russia at the end of the last century, since under the Czar Jewish merchants weren't allowed to do business either in Moscow or in St. Petersburg." Maria Borkozvska-Flisek, Gdansk

Estera Slornka, nee Tajblum, among her friends. The inscription in Yiddish reads "The ,Bildung,, (Education) Society, Workers' Choir Board, Warsaw, February 27, 1932."

Regina (Rywka) Szafran rests her hand on the shoulder of her sister Rza. Behind Rza is Ignacy (Israel) Feldman. The photograph was taken on October 19, 1912, probably in Otwock, where they spent Sundays away from Warsaw. Rywka was a teacher, and Israel was a bookkeeper. They married in 1918. She died in the Ghetto, and he and his son Marian survived the War in Russia. Marian Feldman still lives in Warsaw.

Friends from the Union of Polish Communist Youth. From left: Jzef Edelsztein - threatened with trial for Communist activities, he went to the Soviet Union, was arrested in 1937 and spent seven years in a camp ("Stalin did it to me and not the idea," he says), and to this day is a committed Communist; a young man whose name is unknown; Regina Albert - she survived the Occupation in Poland and then emigrated to Australia; Winerlag the tailor, who was arrested in 1937 in Russia and died in a camp; and Sara Edelsztein, younger sister of Jzef, who spent nine years in a camp, and lived in Kishinev until she emigrated to Israel in 1985.

Names unknown. Photographed by Michal Dabrowski in Baranw Sandomierski.

Names unknown. Print from a glass plate found in Zdunska Wola.

Print from a glass plate found in Zdunska Wola.

Chaim Jogel with his wife and children: from left, Liba, Anna, Judel, and Lonia.

"My maternal grandparents had a hotel in Suwalki near the train station. Well, it was called a hotel, but the family lived on the ground floor, and upstairs there were a few rooms available to let. "I'm surprised that in this photograph my grandfather's head is uncovered. He wasn't excessively religious, but he was a member of the synagogue council. I didn't know my grandmother - she died before I was born. "In the center photograph opposite is my mother's family about 20 years later, in 1924 or 1925. My grandfather, in a yarmulke, is seated; at the back are my aunt Anna, who lived with her husband first in Berlin and then in Augustw, and my uncles Judel and Lonia. They were here on a visit from the United States (which is where they got the straw hats); already as Julius and Leo Young. The picture was taken by my youngest uncle Max, an enthusiastic photographer, who soon afterward emigrated to Canada."

"Uncle Judel and his wife Ruth, a truly beautiful woman, returned to America, where they had some sort of 'gesheft'. I'm on the right, in a schoolboy's cap. Next to me is my uncle, Izaak Menes, and the older gentleman is also a relative. "Judging by the cap, I would say that it was when I was attending the Polish-language Jewish gymnasium in Grodno. I remember that we had these caps with big visors. We entered the school through a sunporch, and there a man would check whether the tuition had been paid. "Many times I was sent back home. My father, who was a typesetter for a Jewish newspaper in Grodno, was laid off because the newspaper could just barely make ends meet. At that time his uncle sent him a little money from the States and my father and a partner opened a Chevrolet dealership. They sold three cars a year and some parts, and all of us lived off that. Then that too folded.

"From the third year I went to the Adam Mickiewicz state gymnasium, which was not only inexpensive but prepared me for my matriculation exam. There was a bench ghetto, though - we Jews sat separately both at classes and at recess." As told by Rafat Malec of Warsaw

Lonia and Judel before their departure for America.

Chaim Jogel, Anna (married name Tenenbaum), Lonia (Leo) and Judel Julius).

On the steps of the railway car, Judel and his wife Ruth.

The children of Szolern Glotzew and their friends at the settlement at Iwanik, near Pinsk.

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