|1941-1945 ASHES OF DEATH
1941 Jan. 21-26 Iron Guard (Rumanian fascist organization) butchers hundreds of Rumanian Jews March Adolf Eichmann appointed head of Gestapo department for Jewish affairs April Germany occupies Greece and Yugoslavia June 22 Germany invades the Soviet Union June-Dec. Nazi Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squad) conducts mass murder of Jews in German-occupied Soviet territory July 31 Heydrich appointed by Goering to implement the "Final Solution" Sept. 1 German Jews required to wear yellow Star of David with the word "Jude" Sept. 28-29 Massacre of 34,000 Jews at Babi Yar-- outside Kiev Oct . Establishment of Auschwitz II (Birkenau) for the extermination of Jews. Gypsies, Poles, Russians, and others were also murdered at the camp Dec. 7 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor Dec. 8 Chelmno extermination camp begins operation--340,000 Jews, 20,000 Poles and Czechs killed by April 1943.
Dying man in liberated Bergen-Belsen, 1945. CL:NARA
Jews executed in a Rumanian town, left hanging in the market place, guarded by a German soldier. CL.Yad Vashem
1942 Jan. 20 Wannsee Conference in Berlin Heydrich outlines official plan to murder Europe's Jews March 17 Extermination begins in Belzec; by end of 1942, 600,000 Jews murdered May Extermination by gas begins in Sobibor killing center; by Oct. 1943, 250,000 Jews murdered June Jewish partisan unit established in the forests of Belorussia and the Baltic States Summer Deportation of Jews to killing centers from Belgium, Croatia, France, Holland, Poland. Armed resistance by Jews in ghettos of Kletzk, Kremenets, Lachwa, Mir, Tuchin, Weisweiz Winter Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece and Norway to killing centers. Jewish partisan movement organized in forests near Lublin 1943 Jan. German 6th Army surrenders at Stalingrad March Liquidation of Cracow ghetto April Warsaw ghetto revolt begins as Germans attempt to liquidate 70,000 inhabitants. Jewish underground fights Nazis until early June June Himmler orders the liquidation of all the ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union Summer Armed resistance by Jews in Czestochowa, Lvov, Bedzin, Bialystok and Tarnow ghettos Fall Liquidation of large ghettos in Minsk, Vilna, Riga Oct. 14 Armed revolt in Sobibor extermination camp 1944 March 19 Germany occupies Hungary May 15 Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews; by June 27 - 380,000 sent to Auschwitz June 6 Allied invasion at Normandy Spring/ Summer Red Army repels Nazi forces July 20 Group of German officers attempts to assassinate Hitler July 24 Russians liberate Maidanek killing center Oct. 7 Revolt by inmates at Auschwitz; one crematorium blown up Nov. 8 Beginning of death march of approximately 40,000 Jews from Budapest to Austria Nov. Last Jews deported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz
The liberation of Dachau. C:BPK
1945 Jan. 17 Evacuation of Auschwitz; beginning of death march Jan. 25 Beginning of death march for inmates of Stutthof April 6-10 Death march of inmates of Buchenwald April 30 Hitler commits suicide May 8 Germany surrenders: end of third Reich